Roerich Museum (U.S.) and Governments of American States
- This document enacts a resolution approved at the Seventh International Conference of American States in 1933.
- The pact recommends the universal adoption of a flag to protect immovable monuments – both public and private – in times of danger.
- The pact affirms that monuments, museums, scientific, artistic, educational, and cultural institutions and their personnel are to be considered neutral in times of war unless put to military use. Likewise, they are to be accorded respect and protection in peacetime.
- The treaty proposes a distinctive flag to identify protected monuments and institutions.
- The design of the flag consists of a red circle on a white background. Inside the circle are three red spheres.
Steward, J. H. (1934). The American Treaty on the Roerich Pact. Science, 80(2078), 375–376. doi:10.1126/science.80.2078.375
PROTECTION OF ARTISTIC
AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS
AND HISTORIC MONUMENTS
BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
AND THE OTHER AMERICAN REPUBLICS
The High Contracting Parties, animated by the purpose of giving conventional form to the postulates of the Resolution approved on December 16, 1933, by all the States represented at the Seventh International Conference of American States, held at Montevideo, which recommended to “the Governments of America which have not yet done so that they sign the ‘Roerich Pact’, initiated by the Roerich Museum in the United States, and which has as its object, the universal adoption of a flag, already designed and generally known, in order thereby to preserve in any time of danger all nationally and privately owned immovable monuments which form the cultural treasure of peoples”, have resolved to conclude a treaty with that end in view, and to the effect that the treasures of culture be respected and protected in time of war and in peace, have agreed upon the following articles:
The historic monuments, museums, scientific, artistic, educational and cultural institutions shall be considered as neutral and as such respected and protected by belligerents. The same respect and protection shall be due to the personnel of the institutions mentioned above. The same respect and protection shall be accorded to the historic monuments, museums, scientific, artistic, educational and cultural institutions in time of peace as well as in war.
The neutrality of, and protection and respect due to, the monuments and institutions mentioned in the preceding article, shall be recognized in the entire expanse of territories subject to the sovereignty of each of the signatory and acceding States, without any discrimination as to the State allegiance of said monuments and institutions. The respective Governments agree to adopt the measures of internal legislation necessary to insure said protection and respect.
In order to identify the monuments and institutions mentioned in article I, use may be made of a distinctive flag (red circle with a triple red sphere in the circle on a white background) in accordance with the model attached to this treaty.
The signatory Governments and those which accede to this treaty, shall send to the Pan American Union, at the time of signature or accession, or at any time thereafter, a list of the monuments and institutions for which they desire the protection agreed to in this treaty. The Pan American Union, when notifying the Governments of signatures or accessions, shall also send the list of monuments and institutions mentioned in this article, and shall inform the other Governments of any changes in said list.
The monuments and institutions mentioned in article I shall cease to enjoy the privileges recognized in the present treaty in case they are made use of for military purposes.
The States which do not sign the present treaty on the date it is opened for signature, may sign or adhere to it at any time.
The instruments of accession, as well as those of ratification and denunciation of the present treaty, shall be deposited with the Pan American Union, which shall communicate notice of the act of deposit to the other signatory or acceding States.
The present treaty may be denounced at any time by any of the signatory or acceding States, and the denunciation shall go into effect three months after notice of it has been given to the other signatory or acceding States.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Undersigned Plenipotentiaries, after having deposited their full powers found to be in due and proper form, sign this treaty on behalf of their respective governments, and affix thereto their seals, on the dates appearing opposite their signatures.
|For the Argentine Republic:||April 15, 1935|
|FELIPE A. ESPIL|
|For Bolivia:||April 15, 1935|
|For Brazil:||April 15, 1935|
|For Chile:||April 15, 1935|
|For Colombia:||April 15, 1935|
|M. LOPEZ PUMAREJO|
|For Costa Rica:||April 15, 1935|
|For Cuba:||April 15, 1935|
|For the Dominican Republic:||April 15, 1935|
|For Ecuador:||April 15, 1935|
|C. E. ALFARO|
|For El Salvador:||April 15, 1935|
|HECTOR DAVID CASTRO|
|For Guatemala:||April 15, 1935|
|For Haiti:||April 15, 1935|
|For Honduras:||April 15, 1935|
|M. PAZ BARAONA|
|For Mexico:||April 15, 1935|
|F. CASTILLO NAJERA|
|For Nicaragua:||April 15, 1935|
|HENRI DE BAYLE|
|For Panama:||April 15, 1935|
|R. J. ALFARO|
|For Paraguay:||April 15, 1935|
|For Peru:||April 15, 1935|
|M. DE FREYRE Y S.|
|For the United States of America:||April 15, 1935|
|HENRY A. WALLACE|
|For Uruguay:||April 15, 1935|
|For Venezuela:||April 15, 1935|
|PEDRO M. ARCAYA|
AND WHEREAS the said Treaty has been duly ratified by the United States of America, whose instrument of ratification was deposited with the Pan American Union on July 13, 1935;
AND WHEREAS the said Treaty has been duly ratified also by the Republic of Cuba, whose instrument of ratification was deposited with the Pan American Union on August 26, 1935;
NOW, THEREFORE be it known that I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States of America, have caused the said Treaty to be made public to the end that the same and every article and clause thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States of America and the citizens thereof.
IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, I have caused the Seal of the United States of America to be hereunto affixed.
DONE at the city of Washington this twenty-fifth day of October in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and thirty-five, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and sixtieth.
By the President:
Secretary of State.
Roerich Pact: Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments (1933). http://orcp.hustoj.com/2015/10/10/roerich-pact-1935/
- Steward, J. H. (1934). The American Treaty on the Roerich Pact. Science, 80(2078), 375–376. doi:10.1126/science.80.2078.375
Леонідова, О. (2014). ROERICH PACT AS A FIRST SPECIAL INTERNATIONAL TREATY ON THE PROTECTION OF CULTURAL VALUES. Actual problems of international relations, 1(95).
- Roerich Pact. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roerich_Pact
- L. Shaposhnikova. Roerich’s Pact Urgency in Today’s World “Roerich’s Pact Urgency in Today’s World” Published in magazine “Cultura i Vremya” (“Culture and Time”) No. 4, 2005.
- International Centre of the Roerichs
- Nicholas Roerich Museum.
- Pact and Banner Of Peace Through Culture, Nicholas Roerich Museum.
- Treaty on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments (Roerich Pact), ratifications and signatures, icrc.org
- Roerich Pact: video
- M. P. Kutsarova, T. P. Sergeeva. Banner of Peace of the Roerich’s World. (Ideas of the author of the Roerich Pact on protection of treasures of culture and their meaning in the past, present and future)http://en.icr.su/protection/heritage/KutsarovaSergeeva.php
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