This collection of documents since 1877 in the domain of cultural property in English is the first digital open repository following international standards and using open source software.
The “Open Repository on Cultural Property” (ORCP) provides a regularly up-dated, fully searchable, summary of policy developments and research findings across the whole community of cultural property. It covers categories of the representational statutory instruments on cultural property adopted by international organizations and Chinese authorities, including Charter, Consensus, Convention, Declaration, Guideline, Law, Manifesto, Memorandum, Pact, Principle, Promise, Recommendation, Regulation, Resolution, Statement, Statute, and Best Practices, as well as founding background documents and position references.
It aims to strengthen:
- helping researchers thinking globally and acting locally
- encouraging higher international cooperation and participation in the protection of cultural heritage in China
- avoiding unintentional mistakes and inaccurate references, making a leap in analyzing know-hows macroscopically and comprehensively, and revealing the underlying mechanisms of each clause and the internal relations between them
This application was developed by Zhejiang University of Media and Communications, China. This work was supported by the National Cultural Innovation Key Project of China under grant NCIP201403.
List of know-hows
1877 – 1904
1930 – 1939
- 1931: Advisory Council for Antiquities and Fine Arts (“Carta Di Atene”) (1931)
- 1931: The Athens Charter for the Restoration of Historic Monuments (“The Athens Charter”)(1931)
- 1933: Charter of Athens (1933)
- 1933: Roerich Pact: Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments (1933)
1950 – 1959
- 1952: The Universal Copyright Convention (1952)
- 1954: European Cultural Convention (1954)
- 1954: Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954)
- 1956: Recommendation Concerning International Competitions in Architecture and Town Planning (1956)
- 1956: Recommendation on International Principles Applicable to Archaeological Excavations (1956)
1960 – 1969
- 1960: Recommendation Concerning the Most Effective Means of Rendering Museums Accessible to Everyone (1960)
- 1962: Recommendation Concerning the Safeguarding of the Beauty and Character of Landscapes and Sites (1962)
- 1964: Recommendation on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1964)
- 1964: The Venice Charter: International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (1964)
- 1968: Recommendation concerning the Preservation of Cultural Property Endangered by Public or Private Works (1968)
- 1969: European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (1969)
1970 – 1979
- 1970: Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property
- 1971: The Universal Copyright Convention of 1971 (1971)
- 1971: Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms against Unauthorized Duplication of their Phonograms (1971)
- 1972: Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972)
- 1972: Recommendation Concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972)
- 1972: Resolutions of the Symposium on the Introduction of Contemporary Architecture into Ancient Groups of Buildings (1972)
- 1975: Declaration of Amsterdam (1975)
- 1975: European Charter of the Architectural Heritage (1975)
- 1975: Resolutions of the International Symposium on the Conservation of Smaller Historic Towns (1975)
- 1976: Charter of Cultural Tourism (1976)
- 1976: Recommendation Concerning the Safeguarding and Contemporary Role of Historic Areas (1976)
- 1977: The Charter of Machu Picchu (1977)
- 1978: Recommendation for the Protection of Movable Cultural Property (1978)
1980 – 1989
- 1980: Recommendation for the Safeguarding and Preservation of Moving Images (1980)
- 1982: The Florence Charter: Historic Gardens (1982)
- 1982: Declaration of Dresden (1982)
- 1982: Deschambault Charter for the Preservation of Quebec’s Heritage (1982)
- 1982: Law of the People’s Republic of China on Protection of Cultural Relics of 1982 (1982)
- 1982: The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China (China’s Constitution of 1982)
- 1982: Tlaxcala Declaration on the Revitalization of Small Settlements (1982)
- 1983: Appleton Charter for the Protection and Enhancement of the Built Environment (1983)
- 1983: Declaration of Rome (1983)
- 1985: Convention for the Protection of the Architectural Heritage of Europe (1985)
- 1987: First Brazilian Seminar About the Preservation and Revitalization of Historic Centers (1987)
- 1987: Statutes of ICOMOS of 1987
- 1987: The Washington Charter: Charter on the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas (1987)
- 1989: Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore (1989)
1990 – 1999
- 1990: Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage (1990)
- 1991: Law of the People’s Republic of China on Protection of Cultural Relics (1991 Amendment)
- 1991: The Québec City Declaration (1991)
- 1992: A Preservation Charter for the Historic Towns and Areas of the United States of America (1992)
- 1992: Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Heritage Value (1992)
- 1992: Charter of Courmayeur (1992)
- 1992: Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) of 1992
- 1992: New Orleans Charter for the Joint Preservation of Historic Structures and Artifacts (1992)
- 1993: The Fez Charter (1993)
- 1993: UN General Assembly Resolution on the Return or Restitution of Cultural Property to the Countries of Origin (1993)
- 1994: Resolution on Information as an Instrument for Protection against War Damages to the Cultural Heritage (1994)
- 1994: The Nara Document on Authenticity (1994)
- 1995: Bergen Protocol on Communications and Relations among Cities of the Organization of World Heritage Cities (1995)
- 1995: Charter for Sustainable Tourism (1995)
- 1996: Charter for the Protection and Management of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (1996)
- 1996: Charter of New Urbanism (1996)
- 1996: The Declaration of San Antonio: Authenticity in the Conservation and Management of the Cultural Heritage (1996)
- 1996: The Declaration of Valencia (1996)
- 1997: The Declaration of Quebec (1997)
- 1997: Document of Pavia (1997)
- 1997: The Évora Appeal (1997) / The Evora Appeal (1997)
- 1998: The Declaration of Melbourne (1998)
- 1998: Recommendation on Measures to Promote the Integrated Conservation of Historic Complexes Composed of Immovable and Movable Property (1998)
- 1998: Suzhou Declaration on International Co-operation for the Safeguarding and Development of Historic Cities (1998)
- 1999: The Declaration of AI Akhawayn (1999)
- 1999: The Charter of Vice-Chancellors (1999)
- 1999: Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage (1999)
- 1999: International Cultural Tourism Charter: Managing Tourism at Places of Heritage Significance (1999)
- 1999: Principles for the Preservation of Historic Timber Buildings (1999)
2000 – 2009
- 2000: European Convention on Landscape (2000)
- 2000: The Beijing Consensus (2000)
- 2001: Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001)
- 2001: UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001)
- 2002: Budapest Declaration On World Heritage (2002)
- 2002: Law of the People’s Republic of China on Protection of Cultural Relics (2002 Amendment) (2002)
- 2003: Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003)
- 2003: Declaration of the Kimberley Workshop on the Intangible Heritage of Monuments and Sites (2003)
- 2003: ICOMOS Charter – Principles for the Analysis, Conservation and Structural Restoration of Architectural Heritage (2003)
- 2003: ICOMOS Principles for the preservation and conservation/restoration of wall paintings (2003)
- 2003: Montréal Declaration (2003)
- 2003: The Hoi An Declaration on the Conservation of Historic Districts in Asia (2003)
- 2003: UNESCO Declaration concerning the Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage (2003)
- 2004: The BAM Declaration and Recommendations (2004)
- 2004: The Cairns-Suzhou Decision on the Global Strategy (The Cairns-Suzhou Decision) (2004)
- 2005: Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005)
- 2005: Declaration on the Conservation of Historic Urban Landscapes (2005)
- 2005: Hoi An Protocols for Best Conservation Practice in Asia: Professional Guidelines for Assuring and Preserving the Authenticity of Heritage Sites in the Context of the Cultures of Asia (2005)
- 2005: The Seoul Declaration on Tourism in Asia’s Historic Towns and Areas (2005)
- 2005: The Vienna Memorandum (2005)
- 2005: The Xi’an Declaration on the Conservation of the Setting of Heritage Structures, Sites and Areas (2005)
- 2006: The Draft 2006 Shaoxing Statement (2006)
- 2007: Beijing Declaration Concerning Urban Culture (2007)
- 2007: Beijing Document on the Conservation and Restoration of Historic Buildings in East Asia(2007)
- 2007: Law of the People’s Republic of China on Protection of Cultural Relics (2007 Amendment) (2007)
- 2008: Declaration of Foz do Iguacu (2008)
- 2008: ICOMOS Charter on Cultural Routes (2008)
- 2008: ICOMOS Charter on the Interpretation and Presentation of Cultural Heritage Sites (“Ename Charter”) (2008)
- 2008: Québec City Declaration on the Preservation of the Spirit of Place (2008)
- 2008: Regensburg Recommendation (2008)
- 2008: Regulations on Protection of Famous Historical and Cultural Cities, Towns and Villages (2008)
- 2011: Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape, including a glossary of definitions (2011)
- 2011: The Valletta Principles for the Safeguarding and Management of Historic Cities, Towns and Urban Areas (2011)
- 2013: Ancient Olympia Recommendation (2013)
- 2013: Bali Promise (2013)
- 2013: Beijing Declaration on Building Learning Cities (2013)
- 2013: Law of the People’s Republic of China on Protection of Cultural Relics (2013 Amendment)
- 2013: Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (2013)
- 2013: The Hangzhou Declaration: Placing Culture at the Heart of Sustainable Development Policies (2013)
- 2013: Lushan Statement of Intent of World Heritage Cultural Landscape in East Asia Forum (2013)
- 2014: Gangwon Declaration on Biodiversity for Sustainable Development (2014)
- 2014: Huangshan Declaration on UNESCO Sites, Sustainable Development and the Role of Space Technologies (2014)
- 2014: Nanjing Declaration on the Preservation and Regeneration of Cultural Heritage in Historic Cities (2014)
- 2014: Statutes of ICOMOS of 2014
- 2014: The Florence Declaration on Culture, Creativity and Sustainable Development (2014)
- 2015: Law of the People’s Republic of China on Protection of Cultural Relics (2015 Amendment)
- 2015: Recommendation concerning the Protection and Promotion of Museums and Collections, their Diversity and their Role in Society (2015)
- 2015: The Operational Guidelines for the implementation of the 1970 Convention (The Operational Guidelines) (2015)
- 2015: The Namur Declaration (2015)
- 2015: Recommendation concerning the preservation of, and access to, documentary heritage including in digital form (2015)
- 2016: World Heritage Youth Forum Declaration (2016)
- 2016: Istanbul Declaration on the protection of World Heritage (2016)
- 2016: Shenzhen Declaration on Museums and Collections (2016)
- 2016: Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (2016)
- 2017: Joint declaration of the ministers of culture of G7 on the occasion of the meeting “Culture as an instrument for dialogue among peoples” (2017)
For further information on international cultural policy and legislation, please consult the following resources:
- Phelan, Marilyn, Gary Edson and Kimberly P. Mayfield, eds. The Law of Cultural Property and Natural Heritage: Protection, Transfer, and Access (Evanston, Ill.: Kalos Kapp Press, 1998).
- This document contains reference to a limited number of national charters and conventions for the protection of cultural heritage.
- Burnham, Bonnie, ed. The Protection of Cultural Property, Handbook of National Legislations. (Paris: International Council of Museums, 1974).
- Saba, Hanná and Nabil G. Salamé, eds. The Protection of Movable Cultural Property, Compendium of Legislative Texts, Volumes I and II (Paris: UNESCO, 1984). Translation of Protection du patrimoine culturel mobilier.
- These resources contain information on the national legislation of other countries.
- Belder, Lucky. 2013. The Legal Protection of Cultural Heritage in International Law and Its Implementation in Dutch Law.
- Tsivolas, Theodosios. 2014. Law and Religious Cultural Heritage in Europe. Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-07932-5.
- Waterton, Emma, and Steve Watson, eds. 2015. “The Palgrave Handbook of Contemporary Heritage Research.” In , 1st editio, 1–584. Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1007/978-1-137-2935-6.
An initial research for “Cultural Heritage Policy Documents” was undertaken for the Getty Conservation Institute by Erica Steele.
- *Council of Europe
- ICOM (International Council of Museums)
- *ICOMOS (International Council on Sites and Monuments)
- ICAHM (International Committee on Archaeological Heritage Management (a committee of ICOMOS)
- IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions)
- OWHC (Organization of World Heritage Cities)
- *UNESCO (United National Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization)
- WMF (World Monuments Fund)
- The ORCP is furnished documentations only for exchanging ideas among researchers, the use of which is all acknowledged.
- Any materials include in the ORCP may be copied only in accordance with the copyright terms and conditions of the owners.
- Any materials include in the ORCP may be used, modified or distributed must reproduce and retain the copyright notice and list of conditions as they appear in the source files.
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