UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001)

Preface: The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO (31st Session), Paris, 15 Oct.-3 Nov,2001.

In November 2001, UNESCO issued the “Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity” (UDCD) to help preserve and promote cultural diversity worldwide. The UDCD aspires to enhance the recognition of cultural diversity, the awareness of the unity of humankind, and the development of intercultural exchanges. Additionally, the UDCD stipulates that UNESCO has the responsibility to promote the principles set forth in the declaration, facilitate an action plan for the implementation of those principles, and serve as a reference point and forum for states and non-governmental organizations seeking to institute policies in favor of cultural diversity.

There is The General Conference,

Committed to the full implementation of the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other universally recognized legal instruments, such as the two International Covenants of 1966 relating respectively to civil and political rights and to economic, social and cultural rights,

Recalling that the Preamble to the Constitution of UNESCO affirms “that the wide diffusion of culture, and the education of humanity for justice and liberty and peace are indispensable to the dignity of man
and constitute a sacred duty which all the nations must fulfil in a spirit of mutual assistance and concern”,

Further recalling Article I of the Constitution, which assigns to UNESCO among other purposes that of recommending “such international agreements as may be necessary to promote the free flow of ideas by word and image”,

Referring to the provisions relating to cultural diversity and the exercise of cultural rights in the international instruments enacted by UNESCO,(1)

Reaffirming that culture should be regarded as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group, and that it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs, (2)

Noting that culture is at the heart of contemporary debates about identity, social cohesion, and the development of a knowledge-based economy,

Affirming that respect for the diversity of cultures, tolerance, dialogue and cooperation, in a climate of mutual trust and understanding are among the best guarantees of international peace and security,

Aspiring to greater solidarity on the basis of recognition of cultural diversity, of awareness of the unity of humankind, and of the development of intercultural exchanges,

Considering that the process of globalization, facilitated by the rapid development of new information and communication technologies, though representing a challenge for cultural diversity, creates the conditions for renewed dialogue among cultures and civilizations,

Aware of the specific mandate which has been entrusted to UNESCO, within the United Nations system, to ensure the preservation and promotion of the fruitful diversity of cultures,

Proclaims the following principles and adopts the present Declaration:

IDENTITY, DIVERSITY AND PLURALISM

Article 1 – Cultural diversity: the common heritage of humanity

Article 2 – From cultural diversity to cultural pluralism

Article 3 – Cultural diversity as a factor in development

CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS

Article 4 – Human rights as guarantees of cultural diversity

Article 5 – Cultural rights as an enabling environment for cultural diversity

Article 6 – Towards access for all to cultural diversity

CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND CREATIVITY

Article 7 – Cultural heritage as the wellspring of creativity

Article 8 – Cultural goods and services: commodities of a unique kind

Article 9 – Cultural policies as catalysts of creativity

CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND INTERNATIONAL SOLIDARITY

Article 10 – Strengthening capacities for creation and dissemination worldwide

Article 11 – Building partnerships between the public sector, the private sector and civil society

Article 12 – The role of UNESCO

Abort the history of declaration:

  • 1989 : Growing pressure is exerted on countries to waive their right to enforce cultural policies, and to put all aspects of the cultural sector on the table when negotiating international trade agreements.
  • 1993 : Pressure grows during the Uruguay Round of negotiations for the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The list for the services sector includes intellectual property and, more specifically, cinematographic and audiovisual works. Several countries take strong positions in favour of excluding culture from the negotiations. A very large majority of countries agree not to make liberalization commitments for cinematographic and audiovisual services. But without full exclusion the question remains unresolved.
  • 1995 : Immediately following the Uruguay Round, new multilateral negotiations are initiated, notably as part of the Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) under the auspices of the OECD (abandoned in 1998), and by the WTO at its Seattle Summit and the Doha round of negotiations which began in 2001. Bilateral negotiations are also initiated, particularly by the United States, which put pressure on a number of countries to waive their right to adopt cultural policies.
  • 1998 : Cultural professionals and political authorities mobilize around the initiative of implementing an international legal instrument that could offset the free trade agreements by affirming the right of States to define and implement cultural policies.
  • 2001 : Adoption of the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity. Hollywood’s share of the international motion picture market was 80%.
  • 2003 : Start of negotiations at UNESCO with the aim of adopting the Convention.
  • 2005 : The Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions is adopted by UNESCO. It changes the landscape: for the first time, countries in favour of cultural policies are no longer on the defensive at the negotiating table. Now they can go on the offensive.
  • 2007 : The Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions enters into force on March 18, 2007. Three months later, the 56 Member States that ratified the Convention meet in Paris for the first Conference of the Parties to begin work on implementing the Convention.
Category
Declaration
Date

2001

Promulgation

The General Conference of UNESCO (31st Session), Paris, 15 Oct.-3 Nov,2001.

Descriptions

  •  It refers to the provisions relating to cultural diversity and the exercise of cultural rights in the international instruments enacted by UNESCO.
  • It notes that culture is at the heart of contemporary debates about identity, social cohesion, and the development of a knowledge-based economy, and affirms that respect for the diversity of cultures, tolerance, dialogue and cooperation, in a climate of mutual trust and understanding are among the best guarantees of international peace and security.
  •  It aspires to greater solidarity on the basis of recognition of cultural diversity, of awareness of the unity of humankind, and of the development of intercultural exchanges. It considers that the process of globalization, facilitated by the rapid development of new information and communication technologies, though representing a challenge for cultural diversity, creates the conditions for renewed dialogue among cultures and civilizations.

Source

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001246/124687e.pdf#page=67

Download

http://orcp.hustoj.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/UNESCO-Universal-Declaration.pdf

References

Intellectual Property

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